Happy 30th Anniversary, Internet and TCP/IP!!!
January 1, 1983 - January 1, 2013
TCP/IP is the protocol that has run the Internet for 30 years.
TCP/IP is actually two protocols that operate at different layers of the OSI Model.
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. It operates at Layer 4, the Transport Layer.
IP stands for Internet Protocol. It operates at Layer 3, the Internet Layer.
TCP/IP is also a large suite of network related
protocols that include TCP, IP, UDP, ARP, etc.
The 1974 paper, A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection, by Dr. Vint Cerf and Dr. Robert Kahn, at this link, presented about five years after the ARPANET was created, first described the TCP/IP protocol.
Later, on January 1, 1983, the ARPANET became the
Internet when all the nodes adopted the TCP/IP protocol for their standardized
Without an Internet, there would be no World Wide Web, and there would certainly be no Facebook, Google, eBay, AMAZON.com, YouTube.com, CNN.com, etc. In fact, the computer world would probably look like it did prior to the Internet http://billslater.com/iso27001
Other important articles by Dr. Vinton Cerf:
Internet History - How the Internet Came to Be
Interview with Dr. Cerf in April 2012
Here's some very important TCP/IP Facts from Douglas Comer's book, The Internet Book:
What You Should Know About TCP/IP
The Internet exists today because of technical software and communications accomplishments made during the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The basic TCP/IP technology has accommodated growth and changes that the original designers did not imagine.
Computers now operate over 2,000 times faster than the computers that existed when TCP/IP was first built.
Despite an 2000% increase in the speed of the central Internet WAN, TCP/IP protocols have not changed; the same design continues to operate correctly at the higher speeds.
IP provides flexibility because it does not demand much from the network hardware and operates on almost any mechanism that can send bits from one location to another.
It accommodates many types of hardware because it makes almost no assumption about the underlying network hardware.
Because TCP/IP standards documents (RFCs) specify the exact way to send IP datagrams on a given type of network, computers and routers from multiple vendors always agree on the details.
TCP and IP work together to provide reliable data transmissions.
TCP handles communication problems that IP does not handle.
Because it constantly monitors conditions on the Internet and automatically adapts, TCP makes reliable communications possible even though the Internet experiences temporary congestion.
TCP/IP protocol software and the Internet were designed by talented, dedicated people.
The Internet was a dream that inspired and challenged the research team.
Researchers were allowed to experiment, even when there was no short-term economic payoff. Indeed, Internet research often used new, innovative technologies that were expensive compared to existing technologies.
Instead of dreaming about a system that solved all problems, researchers built the Internet to operate efficiently.
Researchers insisted that each part of the Internet work well in practice before they adopted it as a standard.
Internet technology solves an important, practical problem; the problem occurs whenever an organization has multiple networks.
The Internet represents an incredible technical accomplishment. Although careful planning and attention to detail contributed to its success, agreement among researchers to demonstrate a practical, working system forced them to demonstrate ideas and eliminate weaknesses.
1. Dr. Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran, and Larry Roberts
2. Dr. Vinton G. Cerf and Dr. Robert Kahn - TCP/IP Co-creators
3. Logical ARPANET diagram from March 1977
4. One of the first ARPANET diagrams from September 1969
5. Another ARPANET diagrams from September 1969
6. TCP/IP and the Communications Stack Approach
7. How TCP/IP works.
8. The partial Internet diagram from January 2005, described in detail below.
Anyway, the attached picture and text below are from
Wikipedia. This is a 2005 picture of part of the Internet. By the way,
is a Class C IPv4 address, at 220.127.116.11, and is part of this map,
somewhere. (This stuff is really exciting isn't it?)
A partial map of the Internet based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org. Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines are indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable by the data collection program in early 2005. Lines are color-coded according to their corresponding RFC 1918 allocation as follows:
Dark blue: net, ca, us
Green: com, org
Red: mil, gov, edu
Yellow: jp, cn, tw, au, de
Magenta: uk, it, pl, fr
Gold: br, kr, nl
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
September 2, 1969 - September 2, 2009
Click on the thumbnail picture to see
Happy 40th Anniversary, ARPANET Project Team!!!
from William Slater and the rest of the ISOC-Chicago Chapter.
What your Team started in 1969, changed the World, for better and forever.
We are eternally grateful for your vision, your brainpower, your creativity, and your hard work!
Thank you from all of us here at ISOC-Chicago!!!
Internet History and Growth Presentation - Last Updated on Wednesday, December 29, 2011
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Copyright 1996 -
William F. Slater, III,
Chicago, IL, USA
All Rights Reserved, Nationally and Internationally.
Last Updated: Sunday, December 23, 2012